Source: Over 2,000 Years of Economic History in One Chart

一图概括两千年来的人类经济史



Two guys set out to do exactly this. One was the Portuguese Vasco da Gama, who actually did reach India, and loaded his boat full of spices back home. He proceeded to load up on black pepper, cinnamon, and nutmeg, setting up a couple of pirate stations,until he was driven out by the Spanish, the Dutch, and the British, who did the serious work of massacring entire islands worth of the local people to claim exclusive ownership of the spice. Nobody appeared to have thought about just buying a couple of seedlings and try to grow the plant themselves. It was some seriously messed way to get one’s hand on nutmeg, something that basically grows like weed in any tropical environment.

两个家伙正整装出发,就是为了这一目的。其中一个,就是葡萄牙人瓦斯科·达·伽马(Vasco da Gama),他成功抵达了印度,并满载香料而归。此后他更开始大量贩运黑胡椒、肉桂和肉豆蔻,并在航运线路上建立了好几个非法站点,直到他最终被西班牙人、荷兰人和英国人赶跑;而后面这几位更是非常“勤快”地屠戮了一座座岛屿,清洗了岛上居民,然后宣称独占这些香料产地!似乎他们当中就没人想过要买几颗香料树苗,带回去自己种……这真的是一种为得到这些香料的非常病态的手段,尤其是肉豆蔻——要知道它们在任何热带环境中都能像野草一样生长。


Source: Da Gama Discovers a Sea Route to India

达·伽马发现通往印度的海上航线


Then there was Africa, with 30,000,000 square kilometers, the size of Europe, China, India, all combined, 60 times that of Spain. So this was the scale of things in early 1500. List of countries by population in 1500 They essentially stumbled on a world 150 times bigger, filled with awesome treasures and rather mild-tempered locals, living off the land. So forget about the petty squabbles of those handful of self-important dudes and their lame myth-making, look at the numbers! The numbers! This is the whole story, right here!

还有就是非洲,乐发娱乐城电子游戏:这块3千万平方公里的大陆,面积等于欧洲+中国+印度的总和,是西班牙的60倍。这就是16世纪早期的世界。
换句话说,西班牙人几乎是偶然间发现了一个150倍于自己的世界,里面充满了令人瞠目的财富,以及相对温和、依赖各自土地为生的当地人。
所以,忘了那些自命不凡的家伙的无聊争辩和他们自创的蹩脚神话吧,看看上面这些数字!数字!所有的真相就在其中!


It was indubitably ugly and bloody because the locals in the Americas, in Asia, and in Africa got destroyed. The ancient civilizations such as the Mayans and the Aztecs in the Americas, the multitude of kingdoms in India, the Khmer empire in south east Asia, the Malis in Africa, and countless others, all gone up in smoke, with only the ruined stones on the ground, and the gold plating peeled off and shipped to Europe. Triangular trade - Wikipedia
But the concentration of wealth seeded the growth of middle class in Europe, which in turn permitted an army of young, bright minds to get an education and then engage in science and technology development, without the constant struggle for survival. Einstein, Madam Curie, Linus Pauling, … these were all educated by government-funded public colleges and universities, without which none of them would be anywhere. What, do you serious expect the Windsors or the Habsburgs to, eh, discover new laws of physics or chemistry? They are not that smart. Have NEVER been that smart. No. The backbone of scientific discovery is the army of middle-class kids. They formed the basis for the 400-year-long Scientific Revolution. The middle-class nerds made those happen, over a much longer time period, because science is very much sequential - meaning you absolutely can’t get to Z until you first get to A, then work hard to get to B, then work hard to get to C,… all the way to Z. Painstaking, frustrating, boring, long and hard! But that’s where MODERNIZATION truly comes from.

财富的集中孕育了欧洲中产阶层的茁壮成长,又进一步滋养了一代又一代年轻聪明的人口接受教育,然后从事科技研发而不必挣扎于糊口谋生。爱因斯坦、居里夫人、莱纳斯·鲍林……他们都是在政府资助的公立大学或学院接受教育的,没有这些大学和学院,就不会有他们的成就。要不然,难道你想让温莎公爵夫妇或者哈布斯堡夫妇去发现什么物理化学定律?他们可没那么聪明,从来没有过。不!科学发现的支柱,是中产阶级子女这一人口大军。是他们构成了长达400年科技革命的基础。在很长一段时间里,所有这些事情(科技进步)都要归功于那些中产阶层的“书呆子”们——因为科学是非常循序渐进的——也就是说,在你首先发现a,然后努力找到b,发现c……之前,你是不可能一步登天找到z的。科技工作辛苦,压抑,无聊,漫长,艰难!但这才是现代化的真正源泉。

But after 500 years, this once-in-a-life-time disturbance is receding, and the rest of the globe is catching up, re-balancing. With a LOT LESS BLOODSHED than when the wealth was concentrated 500 years ago. It turned out that the children of those slaughtered natives are just as intelligent and capable as the Europeans.
Source: globalinequality
From the look of it, there aren’t a lot of time left for Generation Three to be pounding out these kinds of questions on the keyboard. Better hurry then!

但是,500年后的今天,这种“千年一回狗*运”级的失衡正在消退,其他地区国家正在迎头赶上,世界正在重新平衡。与500年前那次财富集中相比,这回流的血要少得多。而事实证明,那些当年被欧洲人屠杀的原住民/当地人的后代,其实和欧洲人一样聪明能干。
看样子,留给“第三代”西方人的时间真的不多了——瞧瞧他们敲着键盘提的都是些什么问题——赶紧振作起来吧!